Chapter 4

            The Agrarian Revolution is regarded as the main period behind farming and food production practices in the world. Although the movement was adopted in various geographical locations in different periods, human life was shaped by the practice and with time, better farming techniques that employed cattle labor were discovered. With the efficiency created, food levels rose and as the supply exceeded the demand conservation techniques were mandated. Later on, food cooking was implemented and human diet comprised of less meat. With the change in eating and working practices, communities developed in farming areas yet with the high growth of the populace, the supply could not meet the high demand. The traditional methods used for food production played a significant constraint on the amount of food that farmers could offer. As technology (plow) was adopted within the agricultural industry, food production increased and the extra production was used for trading purposes. Most farmers were spurred by the monetary factor within the food industry, and with the passage of time, marketing and planning strategies were used to analyze the business environment.

In this period, the extra food produced was employed as animal feeds; energy foods formed the bulk of the food items and the global populace increased by close to sixty percent. Various effects were noted in these periods. Countries were not able to meet the food demand especially in India, France, Netherlands, China and Italy. The climatic conditions also affected the agricultural industry negatively. France experienced twenty-six notable droughts[1]. This was the same case in India, Finland, Scandinavia and China. Undernourishment rose significantly in the globe and export practices were halted. Farming now shifted to the adoption of foreign items such as potatoes and corn that were believed to be resistant to the weather conditions. Forests were cleared for farming ground and marshes were used for rice production. Eating habits shifted once more to meat consumption though it could not sustain the populace.

Chapter 7 Liberalism and Socialism: Marx and De Tocqueville

            Marx thought of democracy as a right that a human being had. Throughout his whole life, he lived to be a social prophet and he believed in an organization of society based on and founded on democratic principles. The beliefs that form the foundation of these principles lead to the emancipation of humankind. De Tocqueville on the other hand was a French researcher who mainly focused his research on why democracy had worked in America but not in his motherland France. He sought to apply the functional aspects of democracy that he saw in America to what he observed as failures in democracy in his motherland.

Marx’s view on revolution is not one that is mechanical, but rather one filled with perseverance and fighting until the ultimate goal of democracy is achieved. Marx speaks at a time when the British powers of dictatorship are being limited and he gives this as an example of the beginning of the democratic revolution. De Tocqueville writes a book ‘L’Ancien Régime et la Révolution (1856)’ that attempts to make proposals on how France can make changes that shall bring about a revolution.[2] He gives three very critical steps to change France and make it acquire not only political independence but also economic independence.

Marx’s view on private property is that its existence is capital in nature. Labor is considered to be the source of private property, and this forms the basis of his ideals. De Tocqueville’s take on private property is one that opposes socialism and encourages hard work and strife. He says that a man should have wealth not by his need but by his hard work. Private property is important and it is the differentiating factor between hard working and lazy people.


Coffin, Judith, Stacey, Robert, Cole, Joshua, and Carol Symes. Western Civilization: Their History and Their Culture. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010

Wiesner, Merry E., Julius R. Ruff, and William Bruce Wheeler. Discovering the Western Past: A Look at the Evidence. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2004

[1] Merry E Wiesner. Ruff Julius R and William Bruce Wheeler. Discovering the Western Past: A Look at the Evidence. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2004), 94.

[2] Judith Coffin, Robert Stacey, Joshua Cole, and Carol Symes. Western Civilization: Their History and Their Culture. ( New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010), 16

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