Capstone Research Project: Disaster Management by the Homeland Security

Capstone Research Project: Disaster Management by the Homeland Security

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Capstone Research Project: Disaster Management by the Homeland Security


            Intervention needed to address any form of disaster has evolved over the years into an involved policy subsystem. The disaster policy undertakes implementation through a set of various functionalities identified by emergency management and respective response. In the modern setting and application, contemporary approaches require multi-dimensional input to minimize the vulnerability that various hazards and the important mechanism of reducing the disaster impacts. The same principle applies when then preparing, responding, recovering from the disasters once they occur. The above responsibilities generate daunting challenges for different governments, organizations, and policymakers due to the disasters’ extraordinary demands and equal pressure on decision-making systems. The affected communities’ service delivery infrastructure demands articulate and deliberate systemic approaches to effect meaningful decisions and implementation. Since different institutions do not have the capacity, outside resources form an integral part of the management plan and program.

           Once the lower levels of governmental jurisdictions and local authorities do not meet emergency management and implementation demands, the assistance obtained points to higher bodies, such as Homeland Security. Similarly, assets and capabilities within the corporate and non-governmental sectors provide crucial assistance at such times. Consequently, emergency management and response become challenges that intergovernmental, non-governmental, and cross-sector policy frameworks address. Research in the process will take an intrinsic look at Homeland Security’s jurisdiction and prioritization of dealing with disasters and effective implementation policies and regulations for both the short and long term. Besides, consideration will depict the physical, social, and economic aspects of the United States’ geography as per disasters. The geospatial requirements and competence will incorporate the research’s objectives within the same complex system as key characteristics of the disaster management approaches. 

Research Question: How does the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) ensure that Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a national and local priority while emphasizing implementation strategies?

           Even though there are institutional upgrades in the United States, there are contending interests, particularly relating to the political economy of disaster alleviation. The mission covers strategy making foundations bringing about coordination issues and a correspondence gap between the actualizing organizations. Disaster or crisis handling ought to undertake a local and a public need given the power and recurrence of crises and administrative organized reaction systems. Notwithstanding, a way to deal with the reduction in disaster hazards requires a vigorous and factual arrangement that outlines a division of capacities at the two levels. 

Hypothesis 1: If the Department of Home Security sees that the danger of any hazard is high, it will put more resources in moderating the underlying risk factors. 

The National Risk and Capability Assessment (NRCA) envelops a set-up of appraisal items estimating risks and abilities in the entire country through normalized and composed cycles. The overall process delivers it as a local area or larger Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA). THIRA tries to distinguish dangers and potential risks pervasive in a larger framework, necessary impacts on what the hazards have on the local area. The assessment checks on the occurrences and, based on those effects, and audit the local area’s capacities. The results are fundamental in deciding a local area’s capacity shortcomings and overseen gaps. The public THIRA sustains a culture of readiness by surveying the effects of most probable dangers and perils to the country while building up administration systems. Furthermore, THIRA is essential for a Stakeholder Preparedness Review (SPR) in which it assesses how limits are lost, maintained, fabricated, or have changed with time. THIRA and SPR are preventive apparatuses that assess the nearby and larger area disaster-handling readiness, astuteness, and abilities.

Monetary assets are indispensable in limiting dangers presented by characteristic and human-made crises. The provisions in THIRA and SPR recognize how FEMA organizes readiness and assistance, constructs, or supports the respective capacities. The current financial assistance needs redirection towards reducing crises while raising more assets to eradicate fundamental danger factors. The private area’s inclusion in sharing the danger depicts consideration by tending to institutional issues with the goal that similar errors do not depict rehashed instances each time a calamity happens. 

Hypothesis 2: If a nation has more monetary assets, it will reinforce disaster readiness by spending more on DRR at all levels. 

           Fruitful DRR requires educated and facilitated administration among all partners. The Federal Government is a fundamental partner and a facilitator in calamity, pre-catastrophe, crises, and post-debacle stages. As per the National Disaster Recovery Framework, “The speed and adequacy of recuperation activities and strength of results related with them, can be enormously improved through pre-crisis recuperation arrangement.” Connecting with organizations demands basic inclusion in guaranteeing all bodies are included at all stages. The office should organize the commonly upheld abilities of people, networks, private areas as well as governments to consider composed frameworks and the executives. The pertinent partners in driving recuperation endeavors ought to impart and uphold commitment with the nearby local areas and authorities by creating shared objectives and adjusting abilities to reduce the potential risks and possible crises. 

           Usefulness and responsibility are crucial among crisis readiness parties. A group of people in a setting that shows a capacity to be ready, responsive, and strong, given future debacles, is ready for progress. Having a proactive local area commitment, public investment, and general mindfulness techniques incorporates hazard reductions in crisis management and effective implementation of such magnitudes. All bodies, institutions, and regulations included are keen on what their activities mean for the overall recuperation steps. Accordingly, to support powerful crisis readiness procedures at all levels, adjudication to the local areas’ relevance is crucial at all stages without fail and avoidance by the policymakers.  


Presence of Significant Economic Resources: The variable is the proportion of the abundance that a given country contains. Financial assets represent products that reflect the trading ability for cash and, thus, acquire a country’s financial influence to attempt its commitments, including improving Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The variable estimated by considering assessments, for example, a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), work power, and disclosure of important minerals, generates vial information. The variable in such an instance determines a classification of being dependent.  

Level of Disaster Preparedness: The variable is for how much a nation is prepared to handle any type of crisis that it faces. Disaster might be in various structures, including illegal intimidation, assault, inward distress, and regular cataclysms. In such a manner, the degree of readiness to eliminate such consequences relies upon qualities, such as the number of armored tanks, submarines, firefighting tanks, law enforcement authorities, and others. The variable depicts an independent constant as it is the regulatory body’s capabilities in mitigating preparation and solutions.  

Spending Level on Disaster Risk Reduction: Various nations spend different measures of resources on DRR. Despite how much a nation procures, it should spend a quantifiable amount on DRR. The consumption guarantees that the residents remain protected and shielded from the effects according to each constitution’s directions. That sum is ready for immediate diversification since there are various needs in each administration. Similarly, the need to address potential gaps in the process merits the spending power. The variable herein depends on quantifiable amounts from the proceeds used at any given time.  

Literature Review

A dominant part of late literature appears to show country security moving to an all risks idea; nonetheless, some writing shows that others will, in general, accept all forms in any case. A contention for moving to an all-dangers idea is made by specialists (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2020) expressing that Terrorism and the All-Hazards Model posts a compelling case for consideration given how traditional approaches obtain significance during disaster management. All-perils arrangement empowers a more extensive viewpoint on risks and mechanisms for managing them. A more extensive establishment on which to fabricate successful projects to oversee risks and debacles needs addressing too. The same prioritization levels for homeland security have faced contestations given the wake of a more globalized front to propagate possible disasters and crises. 

           A region that might be deficient in managing an all-dangers crisis idea is knowledge. Are crisis supervisors in a local area aware of a similar insight as those in law authorization levels for country security? Although crisis chiefs should not have to know all grouped insight, it might be essential for them to know and comprehend the potential dangers and focus on designing and moderating for them appropriately. As indicated by Perry and Godchaux (2015), the crisis chief exists as the organizer and advertising master. That director offers a differential view as the master authority during seasons of a crisis for leaders. Having the option to design appropriately implies approaching the viewed issues as characterized data, for example, admittance to basic framework plans or understanding the potential fear within the targets and those that take precedence in certain localities. 

           A nearby homeland security element’s significance proves critical fas evidenced in contentions that necessitate and call for changes in law authorization associations to manage country security matters. This survey included diary articles, strategy archives, books, and propositions that inspected if psychological oppression centered homeland security association ignores catastrophic events and different crises. Although writing recommends that country security is moving to an all-danger idea, other writing states that subsidizing yet designed psychological warfare generates equal importance. A danger appraisal of the locality helps the construction that would be best for a directive (Mamuji & Etkin, 2019). Once the local policies achieve strengthening and affirmation, disaster management becomes a decentralized effort and provides a solid basis for reliance and assurance to the societies.  

           Financial impetus has extraordinarily affected the current act of homeland security and crisis requirements for management. As Koenig and Schultz (2016) commented, there is an immediate connection between the hypothetical progression of the risks as an applied examination discipline and the improvement of information existence. The latter supports the field of crisis mitigation. While records of catastrophes return probably to the extent of written history, it was not until the twentieth century that the previously characterized research relied on different arguments’ social parts. Researchers on both sides of the issues generally conform to the idea that disaster management at any instance keeps evolving and becoming more inclusive than before. Besides, considerable changes exist in the classification of the risks and probable disaster occurrences.     

           Regular disasters research was a coherent outgrowth of detailed exploration. The term disaster had no acknowledged academic definition. Some scholars and probable contributors started to incorporate characteristic risks. While the focal point of the exploration led by the DRC spun around the assessment of human and association conduct after a disaster, respective specialists systematically started to look at different viewpoints that traversed to incorporate the aggregate of the risks cycle (Ham, Park, & Yoo, 2016). As the focal point of disaster research started to develop, so did the meaning of calamity. The meaning of calamity, in most cases, requires individual understanding left to a specialist who draws on the fields they relate with and contribute. For instance, a scientist who centers around the conduct or mental effects of a disaster probably has an unexpected definition compared to an analyst who centers on the physical or geographical effects. 

           In an inexorably industrialized world with a “reviving of the urbanization cycle,” Banba (2016) examines the job of arising advancements, ecological changes, just as transitions to social cycles as far as design, privileges of citizenship, cooperation in the nation, equity and abundance of government assistance arrangements, on calamities exist. He plots that the “elements” of catastrophes and their more extensive consequences for social patterns will require thought that is more prominent. The idea is that the requirements point towards future exercises concerning disaster arrangement. 

The expansion in disasters arising out of contemporary patterns to incorporate; population development that expands the risks because of the thick structure constructions of urban communities; metropolitan development prompting the expanded requirement for accommodation in zones with increased disaster probabilities, for example, riverine, marsh, and swampy zones. He also states that segment shifts will probably bring about effectively weak populations to turn out to be much more in danger, For instance, the expanded communities and their focuses in catastrophic event inclined zones, such as Florida. As expanded traveling in disaster-prone regions, changes in the way of life will likewise affect the expansion in danger and calamity results. He underscores the lopsided effect of disasters on poor and weak population groups, for example, travelers. 

Findings and Discussions

Development and changes in this country and the globalized world of politics have made new hazards and difficulties for society. Life is getting more confounded, with innovations and the new weaknesses and dangers they bring, and maturing framework. Population development and advancement have put more individuals at risk from both internal as well as external sources. The cofounding effects gather more attention than before due to the enormity of problems caused today (Abdalla & Esmail, 2018). The development of individuals into the Sunshine States place them at more danger to such potential disasters such as seismic tremors, storms, rapidly spreading fires, and twisters. With the planet turning out to be a compliment and more populated, dangers of the transferable spread of different diseases, including pandemics, become more likely and possibly more serious. The latest ascent in global psychological oppression makes life more hazardous. 

           Banba (2016) argues that without an unequivocal definition for country security that disagreeable talk will create concerning one’s fact concerning homeland security. Based on “one’s fact” and the definition grasped, the accuracy concerning one’s view exposes a centralized view grounded in conventional security or a mixed opinion, including crisis management. He offers seven meanings of country security that fluctuate in extension. In a study directed by CHDS, he uncovers that almost a quarter of the respondents characterized homeland security in a mixed way including parts, that offer common resistance to multitudes, psychological oppression, and public security. The following highest group (less than a quarter of reactions) showed that it was all-dangers related. Abdalla and Esmail (2018) state that your definition will build up your view regarding how comprehensive or restrictive you are of other public security abilities. 

           While assessing a wide scope of studies that endeavor to characterize educational programs necessary for homeland security, it turns out to be progressively evident that the examination and educational plan necessities characterized inside will, in general, line up with how a specialist views the body and its jurisdictions. Koenig and Schultz (2016) think about the coordination of both a homeland security and crisis management and implementation educational program to be essential for the future while noticing the social split between them. In the past, similar approaches have witnessed inclusion into the mechanisms of dealing with natural disasters and mitigation policies. In return, the resultant provisions offer greater emphasis for Homeland Security on matters of policy drives that shape disaster management. Regardless of these affirmations, in any case, the distinctions ought not to block joining to meet the more difficult requests of HSEM efforts today and into its future. 

           Financial resources and readiness of the Department of Homeland Security in disaster management to mitigate risks show a direct correlation. From the first hypothesis, the underlying risk factors prove a crucial cog in the policy formulation, implementation, and execution of the systemic steps needed at every level (Mamuji & Etkin, 2019). Subsequently, any country with significant resources will use the economic advantage to effective disaster risk reduction requirements. Common understanding enables one to depict the expected level of response by any government, locality, institution, and policy formulation body by the sheer strength of economic muscle. Besides, better means of faster detection, warning, and monitoring frameworks offer the best forms of preparedness for Homeland Security’s ability to deal with disasters. 


The government’s ability to prepare and respond to disasters has improved through the Department of Homeland Security. Given the historical occurrences on home soil as well as subsequent losses, the transitions have provided a solid framework and mechanism in dealing with disaster management. However, localizing incentives and resources will further reinvigorate the DHS efforts in DRR by building on people’s and organizations’ capacities and capabilities. Similarly, empowerment in this regard assures further improvements when faced with uncertainties in the future. Risk and hazard assessment entails evaluating the vulnerabilities and likelihood of exposure to disasters. There is a need to revisit disaster management structures, assessing whether they serve their intended purposes. By building local capacities and empowering local organizations, they become better prepared to tackle disasters. More importantly, ensuring that the partnerships with the private sector, especially community-based organizations, can undertake roles such as launching early warning systems requires more prioritization.


Abdalla, R., & Esmail, M. (2018). WebGIS for disaster management and emergency response. Springer.

Banba, M. (2016). Land use management and risk communication. Disaster Risk Reduction, 13-17.

Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2020). Introduction to Homeland Security: Principles of all-hazards risk management. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Ham, S. H., Park, N., & Yoo, M. O. (2016). The use plan of the effective computer simulation program for strengthening the disaster Field response strategy. Journal of the Korean Society of Disaster Information12(2), 176-180.

Koenig, K. L., & Schultz, C. H. (2016). Koenig and Schultz’s disaster medicine: Comprehensive principles and practices. Cambridge University Press.

Mamuji, A. A., & Etkin, D. (2019). Disaster risk analysis Part 2: The systemic underestimation of risk. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management16(1).

Mort, M., & Rodriguez-Giralt, I. (2021). Children and young people’s participation in disaster: Agency and resilience. Policy Press.

Perry, R. W., & Godchaux, J. D. (2005). Volcano hazard management strategies. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal14(2), 183-195.

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