Assignment 2

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Disability is defined as the physical and mental conditions that limit the individual’s mobility, sense and activities. The cases have been on the rise globally and therefore the paper addresses the various challenges that the individuals especially the physically disabled face in the places of work. For instance the individuals are discriminated and the inaccessibility to the organization is challenged by the programs and the physical barriers especially those that cannot be accessed with a wheelchair. The various ethical values such as equitable principle eliminate all discrimination against any individual within the work organization. The paper addresses the various laws and acts that as passed have managed to reduce the discrimination and expand the capacities for work for the disabled individuals. The laws include the affordable care act, the American Disabilities act which protects the rights of the disabled. The various support programs also have been addressed in the paper to include the coaching, mentor ship and the creation of peaceful environment for the individuals to secure jobs and work in.

Assignment 2

In the today society, the population challenged with the physical disability is high. In United States for instance, there are approximately 61 million adults living with disability. This is a representative of 26% of the total population with the Southern side of America having the highest numbers. This figures therefore imply that in every four physically fit individuals, there is one disabled individual. The physical disability account for the largest percentage (approximately 7%) of the individuals with disabilities. The physical disabilities which include; cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, amputation, spinal cord injury, arthritis, spina bifida, musculoskeletal injuries and muscular dystrophy. An individual may be born physical fit but acquire the disability due to; accident, injury, illness and others occur due to side effects of a medical treatment (Alruwaili 2018). Just like any other individual in the society, these individuals have a right to work despite both the short term and long term physical disability especially among those individuals born physically disabled presenting a challenge to the individuals when working in any particular organization. However, there are various ethical issues and laws which support them in the various incapacitations in the areas of work.

There are various challenges that come along while working with physical disabled individuals. Attitude barrier is a common challenge in the various work station with the physically disabled individuals. Some of these attitudinal challenges limit the individuals with disability in participating in the common daily chores that they have been assigned. Stereotyping individuals with disability in assumption that their quality of life is poor and unhealthy is a common attitudinal challenges that is witnessed in the places of work as physically fit individuals look down upon the disabled individuals (Alruwaili 2018). Stigmatization and discrimination is also a challenge when working with physically disabled as people tend to think that the disability happened as a result of personal tragedy, punishment for wrong doing and even some think that misbehavior of the individuals cause the disability.

Physical barriers at places of work also present a challenge to the physical disabled individuals. The physical structure may be manmade or natural obstacles blocking the mobility and the accessibility of the disabled individuals to certain areas. Some organizations have not yet set aside ramps for accessibility of individuals with wheelchairs or those with crutches and instead have steps and curbs that directly hinder the mobility of the physically disabled. This challenge therefore indicates that the individual with disability has to be carried or some of the construction has to amend to be accommodate such individuals (Alruwaili 2018). Managers sometimes decline to amend construction-citing inadequacy of funds hence presenting a challenge when a assigning duties requiring the individuals to access that area with steps and curbs only. Absence of weight scale that allows access of wheelchairs or individuals who have difficulty in stepping is a common challenge when working with physically disabled individuals.

Lack of awareness and failure to enforce the existing laws and regulations demanding for accessibility of people with disabilities present the policy barriers. Some of challenges include the denying of qualified individuals with disabilities the opportunities to participate or enjoy the benefits from the various funded programs or services. The various individuals within any organization may deny the qualified physically disabled individuals reasonable accommodations they require to undertake the various job specifications and roles they had applied for (Alruwaili 2018). The various job programs also present a challenge to the physically disabled individuals since some limit the accessibility of individuals to medical procedures due to tight schedule and also the provider’s attitudes and knowledge concerning individuals with physical challenge. Transportation barrier is a common challenge when working with individuals who are physically disable since sometimes the public transportation may be unavailable or inconveniences in distance from the organization site and the public transportation accessibility site.

The various barriers as addressed by the society against the physically disabled can be addressed by the various ethical aspects. Ethically, it is ruled that the inclusion of the disabled individuals in the everyday activities even in the places of work through the various policies and strategies refrains the various instances of challenges experienced by the physically disabled at places of work from occurring (Theis et al. 2018). Generally, the ethical values allows the individuals in acquiring fair treatment without discrimination against, creating products, communications and the physical environment beneficial to every member in the society with the inclusion of the physically disabled as well as elimination of stereotyping against the physically disabled. The ethical values have also being modified to modify the various procedures and system accommodate all individuals including those with various disabilities hence enabling maximum utilization of the various resources by all individuals (Lindsay et al. 2018). In the places of work it has been classified as ethical in universal designing in any organization. This ethical value illustrates the universal design of simplifying life for every individuals in the society. This includes the accessibility of products at the place of wok, communication means and the physical environment to all individuals at little or no extra cost. Through this design the services are accessible to all individuals in the society irrespective of age or disability.

The equitable principle in the universal design favors all individuals especially the disabled individuals. For instance, fitting power doors with sensors accommodate all individuals in the society. Latonero (2018) attest that the flexibility as applied in this design ethically accommodates all individuals with the particular wide range of abilities. Like the mode automated teller machines which is accessible to all individuals which allows the various firms disabled individuals to access their payments at ease. The design also allows for tolerance of error as it minimizes the hazards and the severe consequences in case of accidental or unintended actions. For instance fitting of Ground- fault interrupter electrical outlets limits the risk of shock in all areas hence protecting the disabled individuals who mighty act rapidly against such occurrence in case it happens (Theis et al. 2018). The universal design of organizations also allows the low physical effort when accessing the organization like when fitted in the doors (Latonero 2018). This can be illustrated by the improvisation of easy to use handles in the doors for all individuals irrespective of the ages and disabilities. It is ethically stipulated that every organization should provide for appropriate size and spaces for approach, accessibility manipulation and use irrespective of the body size, posture and mobility. This approach for instance, allows for setting of sidewalk ramps which accommodate the physically disabled accessibility while using wheelchairs and those pushing baby trolleys with the organization

The law society through the three federal laws set in the law system protect the disabled individual’s rights and thus ensuring their inclusion in the various positions in the society including the work in their capacity. The Rehabilitation act of 1973 performs in protecting the disabled individuals in the society through the federal law from any form of discrimination. This nondiscrimination law as adapted by the United Nations human rights applies to all countries under United Nations bracket. (Lindsay et al. 2018) This section in the United States limits the organizations and all employers from denial of the various individuals in the society with disability equal chances of participation and receiving the program benefits and the services. The law also prescribes the right and freedom of the disabled individuals to participate, access as well as enjoy the program benefits and the services. Since the enactment of the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, various barriers that the physically disabled individuals faced in the places of work have tremendously reduced. This is because the act eliminated the various discrimination acts against the physically disabled individuals in the society and expanded the opportunities available to the disabled individuals through minimizing the barriers, changed the general perception against the disabled individuals hence increasing the capacity to participate in the community ecosystem (Theis et al. 2018). The act further allows the accessibility of equal opportunities for all individuals with inclusion of those with physical disability in employment, public accommodations like hotels, hospitals as well as schools, telecommunications including telephones and computers, state and local government services and transportation. People with disabilities as well as patient protection and affordable care act as passed during the reign of President Obama further protects the rights of the disabled individuals. This enactment is generally classified as patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) allows for the provision of more health care choices and enhanced protection for the various Americans with disabilities, provision of long term support and services to the physically disabled individuals. The act further provides for improved Medicaid home and community-based health care services for individuals with disabilities, access to quality and affordable healthcare by the physically disabled individuals and also mandates the accessibility of preventive screening equipment by the physically individuals(Theis et al. 2018). It is under this law the disability status has been designated as demographic category and hence the inclusion of the data collection in the drive to assess health disparities for the individuals with disabilities. Accessibility

Accessibility as defined by the law society passed in the protection of the human rights allows for the accessibility and special treatment for the disabled individuals for instance the parking spaces set aside for the physically disabled should be set in areas close to the entrance (Wehman et al. 2018). The various hallways within the organization to which the individuals are working, should be free of any equipment which might act as a barrier to the individuals accessing the organization. The law also stipulates the organization to accommodate the use of the various Assistive technologies which facilitate the individuals in undertaking of the duty assigned within the organization (Wehman et al. 2018). The assistive technologies includes those technologies that aid in the personal travel and participation in recreational and social events. Therefore, this law allows for wheelchairs, walkers and scooters for physical disability assistance.

For any organization to work best with inclusion of all individuals irrespective of discrimination, various strategies, supports and programs should be put in place especially when working with individuals with more than one disability. This is because there is high leverage in talent upon hiring individuals both with disability and those physically fit in addition to the tax incentives the organization receive from the government (Bigby, Whiteside and Douglas (2019). The identification and change if the processes with inclusion of the processes that support unconscious discrimination when applied in my organization in the recruitment process through the testing of the individual skills among the disabled individuals will eliminate the discrimination in recruitment as well as help my organization in tapping of the talents that they possess. These skills testing will include testing of teamwork and also the technical skills for the individuals with disability.

Bigby, Whiteside and Douglas (2019) argue that creating of peaceful environment that is accommodate to all individuals despite the disability challenge will enable my firm overcome the attitude challenges especially against the disabled individuals. This can be for instance be applied through the training of the individuals within the organization on the challenges that the disabled individuals face and the need to empathize with the challenges the particular individuals face hence eliminating even if nit totally the stigmatization and stereotyping of these individuals. The training also will include helping the other employees within the organization to understand the tools and accommodation available to the disabled individuals hence preventing the shifting of the burden of figuring out solutions within the organization is not left solely to the individual with disability. Through the engagement with community groups, the hiring pipeline within the organization will be strengthened. This is because the various disabled individuals who are very unwillingly to apply for the various job opportunities will be able to apply for the advertised positions and attend interviews (Bigby, Whiteside and Douglas 2019). Therefore, the company will create a robust recruitment pipeline through encouragement to the groups supporting the individuals with disabilities for instance the sponsoring of the national wheelchair basketball association.

Creation of the mutually supportive community through training programs and opportunities that connect the individuals with other employees will support the various individuals to succeeding later in life (Wehman et al. 2018). The various programs will also involve mentoring and coaching initiatives through which the individuals’ perception on work will drastically change. Through the partnership with the various organizations in supporting the program will ensure the maximum support of the disabled community.

Ultimately, the number of the disabled individuals in the society has tremendously increased globally with United States southern side accounting for the highest cases within the country. The physical disability account for the largest number of individuals with disabilities in United States. The physically disabled individuals face various challenges in their areas of work such as attitudinal challenges where they are looked down upon by other individuals in the places of work and discriminated out. Physical barrier is also a common challenge that the physically disabled individuals face as some organizations have not yet set up ramps allowing the accessibility of the wheelchairs. The lack of awareness and inability to enforce the existing laws that protect the disabled individuals present a challenge to the physically disabled individuals at places of work. The universal ethical policy as adapted in the work organization protect the individuals with the disability and the physically fit. Like the automatic sensor doors are in the effectiveness of easing the disabled and the mothers with baby trolleys. Accessibility as adapted ensure that all individuals despite the age and disability are able to access any work organization. The law society also protect the rights of the individuals with disability for instance the Rehabilitation act protecting the disabled individuals from discrimination, the enactment of the American with Disabilities Act has reduced the discrimination and expanded the work opportunities for the disabled individuals. The affordable Care Act has also aided in the protecting and ad vocation of better health care services for the physically disabled individuals. Creation of peaceful environment to accommodate the disabled individuals and training of the disabled individuals as well as creating support programs and coaching programs linking the disabled individuals to employers will create boost the livelihood of the disabled individuals.


Alruwaili, H. R. (2018). The Perspective of University Students toward the Disabilities in Higher Education. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences450(5878), 1-20.

Bigby, C., Whiteside, M., & Douglas, J. (2019). Providing support for decision making to adults with intellectual disability: Perspectives of family members and workers in disability support services. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability44(4), 396-409.

Latonero, M. (2018). Governing artificial intelligence: Upholding human rights & dignity. Data & Society, 1-37.

Lindsay, S., Cagliostro, E., Albarico, M., Mortaji, N., & Karon, L. (2018). A systematic review of the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Journal of occupational rehabilitation28(4), 634-655.

Theis, K. A., Roblin, D. W., Helmick, C. G., & Luo, R. (2018). Prevalence and causes of work disability among working-age US adults, 2011–2013, NHIS. Disability and health journal11(1), 108-115.

Wehman, P., Taylor, J., Brooke, V., Avellone, L., Whittenburg, H., Ham, W. … & Carr, S. (2018). Toward competitive employment for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities: What progress have we made and where do we need to go. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities43(3), 131-144.

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