In this essay you are require to analyse and justify the application of selected principles of effective teaching and learning to each of the 4 macro skills of listening and speaking, reading and writing.

please read the book of Methodology In language teaching:An Anthology of Current Practice .
By Jack C.Richards
Willy A. Renandya
if you understand the process of all macro skill in chapter9.10 11 12 13 it will be OK .
and use relevance references do not use internet sources .












Part A

In this essay  you are require to analyse and justify the application of selected  principles of effective teaching and learning to each of the 4 macro skills of listening and speaking, reading and writing.


Note: The that I chose are meaning, building the schema .communication competence.

When you write four macro skills keep in mind these principles in explanation and give example.





Learning second language    has four type of learning Listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening and reading are two are the two essential language skills. Without a speaker and understand, there can be no language at all.

Reading and Writing allow us to preserve and archive language. If you are able to speak and listen, you can communicate – but you have no way to preserve such communication.

Speaking and listening is how we understand each other. Reading and Writing is how we build on that understanding.

In this essay will explain in detail of all this macro skill and it will analyse and justify the application of three principles of effective teaching and learning to each of the 4 macro skills of listening and speaking, reading and writing.

The essay outlines three principles that applied in four macro skill. Background information (schemata) is an important factor in listening, take into full account the experiences ,goals, and abilities  of students as teacher’s  design lessons.







 It is importance to understand what listening skill is. Listening is receiving what others persons say it is opposite to speaking, Listening is greater important of foreign language learning. It is a fundamental input.

First step of listening is hearting or receiving which means listening sufficient to catch what the speaker is saying. Second step Understands,

Listening understands the message meaning not the number of words. Sufficient

There is a relationship between listening and speaking .If one cannot understand what is said, one is certainly unable to resound,

” (Richards, 1990). In this sense, the listeners utilize top-down processes when they use schemata (background of knowledge and global understanding) (Wallace, 2001) to understand the meaning of message. The schema here can be some knowledge towards the topic, discourse contexts, cultures behind the topic, or other information that are stored in long-term memory. Specifically, in the process of top-down processes of listening, it also includes the process of schema. In teaching listening, the teachers may implement top-down processes by giving brain storming of the topics which is going to be discussed. Taking for examples, the learners may be asked with some questions relating to the topic being discussed, be asked to collect some words related to the topic, and such similar things. Bottom-up processes, on the other hand, it is process of decoding, which relies on the learners’ ability to interpret the incoming language data from sounds, words, or grammatical relationships. In teaching listening for instance, the teachers should give experiences for students to explore how every single word are pronounced, identifying homonyms, homophones, cognates, and so on are also necessary. Besides, it explores translation of every single word into the learner own language, exercising synonyms and antonyms, or taking a look of grammatical contexts. In short, the learners use top-down processes when they energize content words and contextual clues (schema) to catch meaning of incoming messages, whereas they use bottom-up processes when they use their linguistic knowledge to understand the incoming of messages.





Speaking is the process which more than one people involve by using a language    .Learning to speak a second language does not just recognize vocabulary and grammar it is more than that ,Speaking skill is one of two macro skills that used to product outcome






What role does speaking (output) play in second language acquisition? It has no direct role, since language is acquired by comprehensible input, and in fact someone who is not able to speak for physical reasons can still acquire the full ability to understand language. However, speaking does indirectly help in two ways: 1) speaking produces conversation, which produces comprehensible input, and 2) your speaking allows native speakers to judge what level you are at and then adjust their speak downward to you, providing you input that is more easily understood.





Reading is second tool that learning can raise their input of language.

The most important for beginner learning development in read skill is that reading requires specific instruction and conscious effort. One instruction is that learners should understand the relationship between letters and sounds .For example, the name of vowel litters. (A, e, o, u, i) are different from their sounds.   Learner a second language should thought the phonics instruction which called “phonic approach” (2005, p.522).

Most importantly, student should encourage reading for meaning,

Student should encourage doing extensive reading because extensive reading has a lot of advantage such as increase of vocabulary, gain knowledge and awareness.











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