World’s Expo and its Impact on Innovation and Economy

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World’s Expo and its Impact on Innovation and Economy

Introduction

The World Exposition (Expo) is an important hub for all countries to come together and share different products and accomplishments achieved at home. This form of event can be followed back to the 15th century when a similar event to an Expo was held in Persia. Nevertheless, the initial World Expo developed during the time of the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century that happened in London (Encyclopedia.com). The exhibition that lasted 140 days served significant functions in showcasing modern technological forms of production and industrial advancement as well as exhibiting cultural forms and trading aspects. The second World Expo followed in 1853 in the United States and later in 1855 Paris held a similar event where significant discoveries were made, such as rubber, use of concrete, and aluminum among other products that changed the lives of human beings significantly (Encyclopedia.com). The places where such World Expos witnessed the introduction of many new industrial items, which influence industry and the global economy to the present time. It encompassed forms such as textile machines, printing materials, and trains among other forms. An outstanding innovation that was introduced in the 1862 Expo that happened in Vienna is the electric motor. The World Expos held in different parts of the world did not pay attention to technological and scientific productions alone. Such events by the 20th century had tried to examine further and offer considerations to cultures and human beings. Nevertheless, the Great Depression halted the hosting of such expos until after WWII (Encyclopedia.com). As the U.S. economy was picking up from the adverse consequences of the war, it held a World Expo in Chicago in 1933 under the theme “A Century of Progress.” Thereafter, all Expos were accompanied by a theme. The World Expos were and still are utilized by various state and public agencies to build awareness through global forums and speeches for various topics such as human rights and ecosystem. During the modern time, the World Expos slowly overturned their ideology from entirely seeking technological and economic advancement to more sustainable and innovative development. For example, the World Expo that happened in Japan in 2005 focused on the theme of “Reconnecting Humanity with Nature.” Thus, World Expos are undeniably the originator and facilitator of globalization (Encyclopedia.com). The research paper comprises of various major elements. One of these is the literature review that examines the effects of the World Expo on innovation practices and the economy. The paper uses a theoretical guideline that examines the notion of economic expansion on the country where the Expo takes place as a direct effect on the expedition. The rationale for the study is that World Expos attract global attention and in many instances the host benefits significantly from the international event. Consequently, the study seeks to find out whether hosting World Expos impacts positively on the economy and innovative practices while also aiming to fill the research gap, which is to shed more light into the effects of the event in these two aspects.  

The following research questions guide the research;

  • What are the potential effects of World Expo on the host country’s economy?
  • How can World Expo improve the innovative process?

Literature Review

Today, approximately thirty-four World Expos have been conducted all over the globe. Today, World Expos are unmatched among other global events in terms of size, duration, magnitude, and visitors. The primary goals of the literature review is to show the effects of the World Expo on innovation through its different areas such as the future of travel, artificial intelligence (AI), and innovation in healthcare. It significantly influences relationships among states, international organizations, people, and firms (Encyclopedia.com). Moreover, an overview of the economic effects the Expo has through developed infrastructure, the number of visitors, and the number of business organizations that add onto a resilient and diverse economy. It is greatly encouraged by foreign investments, financial exchange at the global level, infrastructure, and advanced telecommunication structures. Forecasts indicate that the economy of Dubai has the capacity to expand at a rate of 3.1% come 2021 and 3.4% by 2022 (Encyclopedia.com). The GDP is further enhanced through ongoing practices such as trade, tourism, and transportation. Thus, having a similar event consider a significant challenge, as it needs some years of proper organization and planning (Encyclopedia.com). Moreover, the process of implementation needs a substantial deal of work in operating and construction and functioning and official welcoming to business and government firms. It also needs new legislations and clear guidelines to put up with the diversity caused by the World Expo. It entails organizing the legal frameworks and cultural events of the host nation.

The effects of the World Expo on the local economy is substantial. Trying to describe or speculate how the event will turn out may not give a true reflection because the magnitude of the occasion, the number of expected visitors, and their anticipated expenditure are likely to vary (Nadkarni). Whereas it is difficult to predict how a World Expo event is likely to turn out, those planning to organize similar events should rely on past experiences. Considering its global nature, such an event is anticipated to attract many foreigners, who in many instances prolong their stay and spend more per capita that other international events such as entertainment and athletics (Nadkarni). In the past years, World Expos in some countries have prompted the construction of new hotels, roads, and airports to accommodate the expected surge in visitors (Nadkarni). Thus, World Expos are mega events that require considerable attention.

World Expos provide a global platform for sharing concepts and ideas and sharing innovation and technology among different groups, improving innovation and international economic integrity. Such events have for many years served as the chief avenue for encouraging creative concepts to the general public (Teare 10). For example, the 1876 World Expo in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania saw the initial presentation of the telephone. Later in the 1901 World Expo in Buffalo, New York the x-ray machine was presented (Teare 10). Several other innovative and bright ideas and concepts were developed in other World Expos that happened in other places of the world.

Shanghai, China acted as the host for the 2010 World Expo that impacted positively on the economy and boosted economic growth. Consequently, the entire economic zone of the Yangtze River has made significant economic advancement during the last few years (Encyclopedia.com). The Accelerate World Expo Shanghai serves as the core of infrastructure reconfiguration in the whole of Yangtze region, and it plays critical functions in improving the city’s performance in various areas, boosting tourism, enhancing logistics and connectivity, and provides an avenue for the growth of industries, which play crucial roles in providing employment. Hence, this research will center on the Shanghai World Expo by finding out how it promoted cultural interchange and fostered economic growth (Encyclopedia.com). The study hopes to show that the rate of GDP was higher after the event than it was prior to the occasion. Furthermore, it is expected that the global event fueled economic growth and the effects of the Expo will continue to impact on the region’s economic growth.

World Expo 2020 that kicked off in October 2021 due to COVID-19 and is expected to run until March 2022 will obviously influence the economy of the UAE as well as impact on its innovation plan. The Expose aims at developing new ideas with long-term advantages for future generations and throughout the globe to connect minds and impact on the future. The UAE, specifically Dubai was successfully nominated to host the global event in 2011 and has had enough time to prepare for the big event (Nadkarni). It is projected that the Expo will significantly change the global market of the UAE as well as improve its infrastructure, economy, and global market, especially in Dubai. It will help the country and the city to achieve their goals and become prosperous (Nadkarni). It is also anticipated that the World Expo in the UAE will create an additional 275,000 working opportunities, which will make the country more prosperous. It is difficult to specify or quantify the precise effect of the event on the country but it is anticipated it will help to generate a lot of money that will be put into different uses in Dubai and the entire country. Analysis by Jones Day informs that the event is expected to generate approximately $23 billion for the city from 2015 when preparations took a higher elevation and 2021, resulting in about 24.4% of Dubai’s present GDP (Encyclopedia, 2021). Moreover, between the years 2014 and 2016, preparations attracted visitors who generated money that improved the economic growth rate of the emirate by an approximately 6.4% annually, with an overwhelming 10.5% by 2020 (Hashmi and Rose). The researcher (Jones Day) arrived at these findings by summing up the total anticipated spending by various participating sides associated with the global event.

The governments of the UAE and Dubai have invested so much in the event to ensure that it progresses smoothly. Most of these investments were channeled on various construction initiatives to enhance the infrastructure and general appearance of Dubai. Hashmi and Rose inform that about $.8.7 billion was allocated for projects associated with the event, financial resource that would benefit the country even after the event comes to an end in 2022. Planners hope to generate about $17.7 billion from the event should it turn out to be a success (Hashmi and Rose). Besides, analysts project that the country may attract more than $149 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) between 2014 and 2020 across different sectors, encompassing tourism, hospitality, and real estate (Nadkarni). It is evident that World Expo 2020 places the UAE and Dubai on the global map and offers significant economic growth prospects for every stakeholder (Mermore). The global event offers an appealing platform for producers of beverages and food in the UAE to display present and future trends in the industry, largely as the country’s leadership hopes to deliver in-country value through production, innovation, and local research.

It is expected that the event will facilitate use of digitalization in the production of food and beverages while relying on the theme “Transforming Future of the Food and Beverage Manufacturing.” It is essential that the sector adjusts its producers to match the new norm. Moreover, the UAE works hard while relying on collaborative effort to create a dynamic setting that permits the food and beverage manufacturing sector to advance (Teare 10). Furthermore, the 2020 Expo in Dubai will largely foster industrial development, while emphasizing on innovative practice and sustainability. The need to achieve innovativeness and sustainability currently receives much attention in the UAE and forms the basis of discussion for many scholars and stakeholders. The event is of one of the initial Expos to be held since after the health pandemic struck and it is expected to offer a precious opportunity to showcase advancements and ideas that have developed at the global arena (Teare 10). The event offers a suitable chance to connect and collaborate with various firms and individuals, building new team works and identifying new opportunities and possibilities.

Further examination of the World Expo taking place in Dubai reveals that the event is likely to have significant impact on many aspects. The director of the event, Reem Al Hashimy said that the theme guiding the Expo is “Connecting Minds, Creating the Future.” The Expo is anticipated to get at least 25 million visitors and is termed as the biggest of such an event to be hosted in the Arab World (Teare 9). More than 190 nations are expected to take part. The Expo will be instrumental in enhancing the economy of Dubai and forming more than 300,000 additional jobs (Teare 9). The primary objective of the Expo in Dubai is to achieve and emphasize of stability, as it will function towards the reuse of more than 90% of the materials used in the construction of a 4.3 km2 site in later use.

Theoretical Framework

Freeman developed the stakeholder theory and referred it to organizational stakeholders when he claimed that a firm mat be termed by its affiliates with the company’s stakeholders, is the theoretical basis of this study. Freeman refers to a stakeholder as a person or group of people that may impact or is impacted by the achievement of organizational goals (Pamar et al. 405). Donaldson and Preston later advanced the concept by claiming that a stakeholder, whether an individual or a group, must have real interest in the firm. Since its formation in the 1980s the stakeholder theory has turned into a well-formed concept in the field and literature of corporate management. Furthermore, three scholars (Byrd, Cárdenas, and Greenwood) examined stakeholder participation and public engagement in the field of sustainable tourism at Expo utilizing tourist management theory (Pamar et al. 409). Stakeholder engagement, they assert, happens in different informal and formal forms, encompassing group discussions and personal interviews, public meetings, stakeholder survey information, and review panels of eminent leaders (Pamar et al. 416). Consequently, effective structures are needed to implement stakeholder participation. Despite lack of clarity concerning the likelihood of stakeholder engagement, Greenwood is confident that without this concept, any tourism enhancement will not have any meaning and will just be an act of marketing.

On the other hand, Cerruti examined stakeholder engagement in the area of important events and a considerably recent article, arguing that such participation has positive socio-cultural impacts. Taking into account that the research focuses on a major happening, it is essential to clarify that an immense body of literature tries to classify events and offer classification ranging from the topic to the scale of the event (Jeffery). In contrast, Raj, Walters, and Rashid contend that the larger or bigger the event, the more objectives it can achieve because there will be other events taking place, and ultimately more stakeholders will join.

Joseph Schumpeter created the innovation theory of profit, which he contended that a business person may generate money through generating bright and prosperous concepts. Based on the innovation profit theory, the main duty of an investor is to foster innovations, and profitability comes as an award for their efforts (Sledzik 90). According to Schumpeter innovation refers to any new technique that an entrepreneur uses to increase demand for good and reduce the overall cost of production (Sledzik 90). Thus, Schumpeter classifies innovation into two sections; the first includes all activities that reduce the total cost of production, such as bringing in new technologies and techniques, suitable industrial techniques and so on (Sledzik 92). All attempts that increase demand for products fall under the second group of innovation. Based on the innovation theory of profit, the business person makes money of their invention minimizes the entire cost of manufacturing or improves demand for the good (Sledzik 92). Furthermore, the theory claims that profits are usually produced for a shorter time when rivals imitate the invention, making the innovation to lose originality.

Diagram

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Figure (1) – Diagram shows the connection between independent varibale (innovative concept) and the dependent variable (country’s economy) and the mediating variable (The World Expo)

In conclusion, the literature review informs that hosting a World Expo can have tremendous effects on the host country if it enacts adequate plans to manage the process. The study shows that various nations that have hosted the event have witnessed significant advancement in their economies that could be attributed to the global event. The same happens with how the event impacts on innovation levels in the host country. Nonetheless, more research is needed to acquire adequate information about the potential impact on World Expos on the economy and innovation levels. Otherwise, nations may continue to avoid valuable opportunities that could have substantial impact.

Research Methodology

Hypothesis

The following hypothesis guide the survey research;

  • There is not significant effect of the World Expos on the economic growth of the host nation in general as theory implies that the economy is likely to grow when other factors come into play.
  • There is no effect of the World Expo on developing innovative ideas, but these concepts can be adequately presented and utilized by potential investors during other events such as formal gatherings at the expo or seminars.

Research Design

Conducting a research requires a researcher to identify and implement an effective research design that would provide the opportunity to conduct the study in the most effective manner. A research design refers to the overall technique that a researcher chooses to integrate the various elements of the research in a logical and coherent manner, thus ensuring the researcher adequately addresses the research questions. In other words, a research design serves as an arrangement of collection or conditions (Ponto 168). A researcher identifies and employs a research design to permit them use the techniques that are appropriate for the research and to structure their research effectively and successfully at the time of the study and in future. A suitable research design serves as a blue print for the gathering, measurement, and analysis of collected data. Some of the available research designs that researchers can utilize to complete their studies, include the descriptive approach, which comprises of techniques such as survey, observation, and case-study and correlational research design, which comprises of techniques such as observational study and case-control study (Ponto 168). A research design can also be experimental or review, with each taking the form of quasi-experiment, controlled experiment, and field experiment, and systematic review and literature review, systematically. Thus, it is imperative to conduct adequate research into each of these research designs and select the one that suits the study.

The study in this case utilizes the descriptive approach, and in particular the survey approach. Survey research is the process of performing research utilizing surveys that researchers distribute to research participants (Ponto 169). In other words, a survey research entails gathering information from a sample of participants via their reactions to questions. The type of research design permits for a variety of approaches to recruit respondents, gather data, and use various approaches of instrumentation. The data gathered from surveys is then analyzed statistically to gather meaningful research outcomes (Ponto 169). The survey approach is a quantitative technique that features the utilization of self-report guidelines on keenly selected samples but it is also possible to utilize the approach in conducting qualitative research.

The survey research design is applicable in this case due to various reasons. One of the main reasons why the approach is relevant in this case is that it permits researchers to gather large volumes of data in a considerably short time (Ponto 170). Consequently, it will be possible to collect a wide range of information that relate to the research questions. The survey approach is most relevant for this study because the method can be utilized to gather information on a wide range of ideas, encompassing opinions, behaviours, attitudes, and personal information (Ponto 170). Another reason why the survey research design is suitable in this case is that not as costly some research design approaches such as experimental that may require a researcher to engage in extensive experimental procedures. The survey approach presents other benefits to researchers that they can utilize to improve the outcome of their study. The technique is highly flexible, which means that it is possible to deploy the technique using various techniques, encompassing social media surveys, email surveys, telephone surveys, and face-to-face surveys (Ponto 170). Besides, the technique is suitable because it is dependable taking into account that the anonymity associated with the survey technique permits participants to react more openly and with valid responses. To get the most precise response, it is important to ensure participants are as honest and open as possible with their responses. Surveys performed anonymously offer a chance for more unambiguous and sincere answers than other forms of research approaches, particularly if it is stated clearly that survey responses will remain entirely classified. Nonetheless, it is imperative to consider some of the limitations associated with the survey approach to avoid any inconveniences when performing the research (Ponto 170types of ). One of the possible limitations associated with the technique is that it is not suitable for controversial topics. Furthermore, it is possible that the questions can be inappropriate if the researcher does not sample them adequately. Hence, it is advisable to first conduct some research to understand how the research design works before deploying it.

Country Setting

The research will take place in Dubai, UAE where the 2020 World Expo is currently ongoing. Dubai is one of the emirates of the UAE together with Fujairah, Umm Al-Quwain, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, and Ajman. The UAE is one of the richest nations in the world falling in the top ten slots. However, not a significant population of those who live in the country leads a decent life because an approximated 19% of the population live in poverty. The poverty rate is worrying as the country is still perceived wealthy on its entirety while still up to a fifth of the population is not wealthy. Regarding Dubai, which is one of the major cities in the region after Abu Dhabi, which is the capital of the region. Dubai is situated in the east of the Arabian Peninsula on the coastal area of the Persian Gulf. The city seeks to be the hub of business in the Western part of Asia where GCC nations are located. The city also serves as a major transportation hub for cargo and passengers. The area has recorded significant advancements due to oil revenues that help improve development of the city, which had already developed as a vital mercantile hub. Moreover, Dubai has served as a crucial center for global and regional trade since the beginning of the 20th century. The city and the country rely on financial operations, real estate, trade, aviation, and tourism for revenue production.  

Questionnaire

One of the ways to gather data in a research is to use a questionnaire that comprises of the key research questions. Roopa and Satya describe a questionnaire as tool comprising of various questions utilized to gather relevant information from research participants (38). A questionnaire may include either oral or written questions and take the form of an interview. A questionnaire also refers to the list of questions utilized to gather data about something or someone. It is important to understand that the purpose of a questionnaire is not to perform a statistical analysis or find patterns and trends. Nonetheless, a questionnaire can be applicable in both qualitative and quantitative research. A questionnaire can either be closed or open-ended. A closed-ended questionnaire is one that participants can only react to questions by choosing from a restricted number of choices, often multiple-choice questions. Typically participants only respond using a single word – either yes or no (Young 170). The respondent may also either choose to agree, strongly agree, disagree, or strongly disagree. On the other hand, an open-ended questionnaire does not offer respondents with predetermined responses to choose from, instead it prompts them to offer answers using their own words. Open-ended questions are widely used in exploratory research and qualitative research (Young 172). An open-ended questionnaire also refers to survey questions that permit participants to respond in an open-text style so that they can respond based on their awareness and knowledge as well as on their understanding and feelings.

The study in this case deploys the open-ended questionnaire because of the various merits associated with the approach. Other than permitting unlimited responses, the study settles on open-ended questionnaires because it provides new, usually unexpected information related to the research questions. Moreover, an open-ended questionnaire offers an opportunity for respondents to give more details about what they address (Young 172). However, it is imperative to consider some of the possible limitations of using open-ended questionnaires, including consumption of much time and reduced response rates (Young 173). Nonetheless, the benefits outweigh the demerits, which makes open-ended questionnaires preferable for this study. The copy of the questionnaire used for this study is attached at the appendix section.

Sampling Process

In research sampling is one of the most essential components that determine the preciseness of the research outcomes. If anything tampers with the sample then it will directly reflect in the final outcomes. It is practically not possible to study the entire population, for instance when completing a questionnaire survey as it happens in this case (Health Knowledge). Sampling is a technique that permits researchers to gather information concerning a population depending on the results from a subgroup of a population, without having to interview every person. Moreover, minimizing the size of the sample minimizes the workload as well as the cost, and may simplify the process of gathering quality data, but this must balance against having a broad sample size with adequate capacity to find relationship between variables (Health Knowledge). Researchers can choose from a wide range of sampling techniques and find the one that suits their needs. One can choose from techniques such as simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, clustered sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, snowball sampling, and purposive sampling (Health Knowledge). All in all, a researcher must remember that a good sample is one that is goal-oriented, precise in its representation of the larger population, and proportional.

This study uses the stratified sampling technique where the population is first separated into different subgroups called strata because their share similar features. The technique is more suitable when expecting the measurement of interest to differ between the diverse subgroups (Health Knowledge). In this case therefore, the research identifies those who have interacted with the ongoing World Expo or any other and find their views regarding their experience. The process starts by selecting those who lead and work in various sectors as well as select those who monitor economic growth in government and non-government facilities. The next step is to select those who have experienced the effects of World Expos first-hand. The group comprises of those who gained innovative ideas from the Expo in Dubai or any other place that held the event and they were present. The identification process will happen via social media avenues because it is possible to reach people from different using the avenue. The sample also comprises of those who are assigned the task of monitoring economic progress in some nations that have hosted World Expos as well as in the UAE. Thus, state and non-state economists are part of the sample to acquire considerable information about whether World Expos impact on economic development. Specifically, the study comprises of 10 participants who have participated in the Expo in Dubai, 10 economists in Dubai, 10 participants who have participated in the process in other nations, and 10 economists from other nations. Thus, a total of 40 participants take part in the research (25 males and 15 females). The participants come from diverse backgrounds to achieve diversity.

Data Collection Method

The data collection method for the survey research is email interviewing whereby the researcher and participants communicate primarily via email. The researcher deploys the questionnaires via different emails to ensure they reach individual participants. Each respondent fills the questionnaire and submits via email when they complete all questions. All other inquiries happen through email. Email interviewing is beneficial because the approach offer more chance for participants to consider their answers and utilize their own carefully selected words to express them (Hawkins 496). As a researcher, one also gains from the convenience of time because they can review the answers closely before making a follow up with more probing and targeted queries. Furthermore, the researcher does not incur any costs when conducting the research contrary to face-to-face or telephone interviews (Hawkins 496). Furthermore, the approach is flexible because the respondents can answer to the questions at their free time and submit when they think it is the right time. However, it is important to understand some of the limitations associated with the email interview approach to avoid inconveniencies that could affect the data collection process. One demerit of email interviews is that creating the written answers is generally more time consuming than face-to-face interviews (Hawkins 497). Another demerit of using email interviews is the likelihood of getting short or incomplete answers because the needed guidance may not be available. Furthermore, participants may choose to disengage from the process thereby disrupting the whole initiative (Hawkins 497). Consequently, it is important to consider both merits and demerits and take suitable measures when using email interview to collect data.

Data Analysis

Data analysis is equally important when conducting a research and paying considerable attention to this area increases the likelihood for achieving the best outcomes. Data analysis summarizes collected information. It entails the interpretation of data collected via the use of logical and systematic reasoning to determine trends, relationships, and patterns (Yellup). Performing a data analysis provides a chance to draw conclusions from a set of data to be in a position to make proper choices or merely to broaden knowledge on various concepts (Yellup). A researcher can use various data analysis techniques depending on their needs and aspirations. A researcher can choose to use prescriptive analysis, predictive analysis, diagnostic analysis, statistical analysis, text analysis, qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis (Yellup). The study in this case uses the qualitative analysis technique to analyse data. The approach largely considers questions such as how, what, and why. The qualitative data analysis technique is suitable when dealing with data that is in the form of a text or narrative.

Based on the collected data it appears that those who have engaged in World Expos in Dubai and other parts of the world concur that the event serves crucial roles in impacting on innovation. Some participants from the UAE concur that their interaction with innovators from different parts of the world has played fundamental roles in equipping them with valuable awareness that they can use to advance their operations. Responses from a few economists also reveal that hosting the World Expo plays fundamental functions in boosting the economy. Response from economists from other nations who have identified and learned the economic impact of World Expos share the same perception with their counterparts in the UAE who have so far identified the trend in economic development. Whereas some think that the even contributes to economic growth and impacts on innovative levels, others think contrary and believe that economic growth does not depend on a single factor. However, it emerges that the innovative ideas introduced during such events can go a long way into boosting innovation in the host country. Thus, the findings confirm the hypothesis that for the economy to grow other factors must come into play and that such events are not the primary reasons behind expansion in innovative levels.

Discussions and Implications

The outcomes suggests that hosting nations need to pay considerable attention to World Expos because such events present suitable opportunities to boost the economy and innovative levels. Nonetheless, a host nation should not entirely rely on World Expose for economic growth because it emerges that for the economy to grow other factors must come into play to ensure stability and consistency in the way the economy thrives (IISD). However, hosting nations stand a higher chance of benefiting from the event considering that it happens for various weeks or months and visitors come to spend in the country during their entire stay. Therefore, a country that gets the opportunity to host a World Expo should not be reluctant in considering other measures that would make the economy to grow and stabilise (IISD). Moreover, the study shows the importance of focusing on the innovative ideas that are likely to emerge from a World Expo event. Whereas the event does not entirely contribute to innovative practices in the country it offers some valuable insight that innovators can use to improve their production processes and ideas.

Conclusion

The study examines the potential impact of World Expos on the hosting nation. Evidence from past World Expos indicate that taking time to prepare and hosting such events provides a suitable chance for the hosting country to record significant economic growth as well as make tremendous growth in terms of innovation. The study shows that organizing a World Expo event require enough timing and planning. Conducting a successful World Expo event also requires significant investment to ensure that the international event is a success. Economy wise, World Expos attract many visitors who come to spend in the hosting nations. Ultimately after hosting the event for various weeks or months the host nation gains from the revenue various businesses have generated. In terms of innovation, World Expos equip entrepreneurs with valuable skills and concepts that they may use to advance their practices. To confirm whether World Expos impact on the economy and innovation levels in the host country, the paper includes a survey research that engages participants via open-ended questionnaires. The survey method is preferable in this case because it is flexible while open-ended questionnaires are effective because they provide room to gather a wide range of information from the participants. The stratified sampling technique serves as the method for selecting the sample that takes part in the study, and through it the study incorporates those who have participated in such Expos and economists who monitor economic growth. Data collection happens using email interview because the technique makes it possible to reach people from different parts.

Works Cited

“A Brief History of World Expo.” Encyclopedia.com, 2021, https://www.encyclopedia.com/electronics/international-magazines/brief-history-world-expo. Published 2021. Accessed 7 Dec. 2021.

Hashmi, Sameer and Ian Rose. “Rescheduled Dubai Expo Hopes to Attract 25 Million Visits.” BBC, April 11, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-56682427 . Accessed 7 Dec. 2021.

Hawkins, Janice. “The Practical Utility and Suitability of Email Interviews in Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Report, vol. 2, no. 2, 2018, 493-501. doi:10.46743/2160-3715/2018.3266

“World Expo 2020.” IISD, October 1, 2021, https://sdg.iisd.org/events/expo-2020/. Accessed 7 Dec. 2021.

Mermore. “Economic Impact of Dubai Expo 2020.” Marmore Article. Marmore MENA Intelligence, September 22, 2021, https://www.marmoremena.com/economic-impact-of-dubai-expo-2020/. Accessed 7 Dec. 2021.

Jeffery, Neil. “Stakeholder Engagement: A Road Map to Meaningful Engagement.” https://www.fundacionseres.org/lists/informes/attachments/1118/stakeholder%20engagement.pdf.  Accessed 7 Dec. 2021.

“Methods of Sampling from a Population.” Health Knowledge, 2021, https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/research-methods/1a-epidemiology/methods-of-sampling-population.  Accessed 7 Dec. 2021.

Nadkarni, Sanjay. “Conclusions: Expo 2020 and Its Impact on Dubai.” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 11, no. 3, 2019, doi:10.1108/WHATT-02-2019-0011

Pamar, Bobby, Edward Freeman, Jeffrey Harrison, and Charles Purnell. “Stakeholder Theory:The State of the Art.” The Academy of Management Annals, vol. 3, no. 1, 2010, pp. 403-445.

Ponto, Julie. “Understanding and Evaluating Survey Research.” Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2015, pp. 168-171. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286445115_Understanding_and_Evaluating_Survey_Research

Roopa, Simar and Rani Satya. “Questionnaire Designing for a Survey.” The Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society, vol. 46, no. 4, 2012, pp. 37-41. doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1104

Sledzik, Karol. “Schumpeter’s View on Innovation and Entrepreneurship.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2013, pp. 89-95. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2257783

Teare, Richard. “Expo 2020: What will be the Impact on Dubai?” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 2019, pp. 9-11. doi:10.1108/WHATT-03-2019-0012

Yellup, Vikas. “Descriptive Analysis.” International Journal of Academic Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, 2018, doi:10.4103/IJAM.IJAM_7_18

Young, Tony. Questionnaires and Surveys. In Zhu, H. (Ed.), Research Methods in Intercultural Communication: A Practical Guide, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, pp. 163-180.

Appendix

Questionnaire

Q1. Do you think that World Expos boost economic growth of the host country? Give any supporting reasons

Q2. Do World Expos improve innovative practices and ideas in the host country? Give possible descriptions

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